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To read the original article Identifying and Addressing Soil Compaction click:

Photo Sequence: Soya, Maize, Pastures, Sugar Cane, Macadamia

The effect of deep ripping on seed set and pod development in soyabean growing on a compacted clay soil; left of field ripped and showing good seed development, right not ripped and with few or no pods. Photo: Dr Mart Farina

Effects of wheel traffic compaction arising from silage-making operations on maize growth (left). Note the nitrogen and magnesium deficiencies in the affected maize, due to soil acidification (and aluminium toxicity) resulting from restricted rooting and consequent inefficient nitrogen uptake. Photo: Dr Mart Farina, Karkloof, KZN).

Impaired root development in the compacted area. (Pictures courtesy of Dr Mart Farina, Karkloof, KZN).

Brown patch through centre of maize field showing the effect of a lack of surface residue (due to a ‘run-away’ fire) on subsequent maize growth. In the burned area, grain yield was 3.1 t/ha and there were essentially no earthworms; in the unburned area, yield was 9.4 t/ha, earthworms were plentiful, and water infiltration rate five-times more rapid than in the burned area. Photo: Dr Mart Farina, Bergville 2010

Surface capping in maize. Photo: Mark Hawksworth, Tweeling area, Free State, 2018

High stocking densities of dairy cows may result in compaction problems, even in high-potential soils (right). Photo Dr Neil Miles: Mooi River

Soil compaction from high stocking densities of dairy cows. Photo Dr Neil Miles: Mooi River

Topsoil under long-term sugarcane mono-culture (left), and adjacent permanent grassway (right). Photo: Dr Neil Miles, Stanger

. Plough pan at a depth of approximately 30 cm in a sugarcane field (left). Photo: Dr Neil Miles

Evidence of the effects of compaction by heavy wheel traffic on the growth of ratoon cane, centre row unaffected; rows on either side compacted by tractor and trailer wheels. Photo: Dr Neil Miles

Intra-row surface capping in the absence of mulch cover in a Macadamia orchard. Photo: Mark Hawksworth, Hilton, KZN, 2018